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Exercise for Cancer Prevention

Obesity has been linked to a higher risk of getting some cancers. This includes cancers of the prostate, cervix, kidney, breast, endometrium, liver, rectum, ovary, esophagus, colon, and gallbladder. The exact mechanism behind this higher risk for overweight people is not known. Changing your diet to lower your risk of developing cancer is a good idea. Starting an exercise program might also be helpful. Exercise is an important part of any weight loss plan. Always talk to your healthcare provider before starting an excercise program and changing your diet.

Whether you are a beginner to exercise or a seasoned athlete, you need to know about basic exercise guidelines. The American College of Sports Medicine advises the following for healthy adults younger than age 65:

  • Exercise at a moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week. Or exercise at a vigorous intensity 3 days a week.

  • Warm up for 5 to 10 minutes before aerobic activity.

  • To lose weight or maintain weight loss, more activity may be needed.

  • Do strength-training exercises twice a week.

  • Slowly lower the intensity of your workout. Stretch to cool down during the last 5 to 10 minutes.

How to determine your target heart rate zone

To benefit from exercise, it is important to maintain a level of intensity. A method of checking your intensity is to find out if your heart rate or pulse is within your target heart rate zone during physical activity.

Your target heart rate zone should be 50% to 85% of your maximum heart rate. To determine your target heart rate zone, follow these steps:

  1. An estimate of a person's maximum age-related heart rate can be calculated by subtracting the person's age from 220. For example, for a 55-year-old person, the estimated maximum age-related heart rate would be calculated as 220-55 years=165 beats per minute (bpm).

  2. Next, multiply the maximum age-related heart rate by 0.50 to determine the 50% level. For example: 165 beats per minute x 0.50=83 beats per minute (bpm).

  3. Finally, multiply the maximum age-related heart rate by 0.85 to determine the 85% level. For example: 165 beats per minute x 0.85=140 beats per minute (bpm).

Thus, moderate-intensity physical activity for a 55-year-old person will need the heart rate to stay between 83 and 140 beats per minute when exercising.

During exercise, you should stop briefly and check your pulse from time to time to find out if you are wiithin your target heart rate zone. To check your pulse, using the first and second fingertips, press lightly over the carotid artery located on your neck. It's just to the left or right of the Adam’s apple. Or check your radial pulse. Press on the artery inside your wrist, just below the base of your thumb.

Count your pulse (heartbeats) for a full 60 seconds. Or count for 30 seconds and multiply by 2, or 10 seconds and multiply by 6.

The target heart rate zone is a guideline. Always talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions about your heart rate, or starting an exercise program.

Examples of aerobic exercise

Examples of aerobic exercise are:

  • Walking

  • Jogging

  • Swimming

  • Bicycling

  • Rollerblading

Try to add strength training or lifting weights a couple of times a week. This improves strength and muscle tone along with raising your metabolism. This allows you to burn more calories at rest.

Besides trying to find time for structured exercise, you should also try to add more activity into your daily routine. These everyday activities also burn calories:

  • Vacuuming

  • Mowing the lawn with a push mower

  • Washing your car by hand

  • Gardening

  • Scrubbing your floors and bathtub

  • Golfing

If possible, walk or bike to work or the grocery store. Park your car far away from the front door of work or the shopping mall.

By adding more physical activities and routine exercise into your life, you will feel better. You may also lower your risk of developing cancer.

Online Medical Reviewer: Levy, Adam S, MD
Online Medical Reviewer: Sather, Rita, RN
Date Last Reviewed: 6/1/2018
© 2000-2018 The StayWell Company, LLC. 800 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional's instructions.
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